The stage of child development, especially at a young age, is not only physical but also psychological, namely social, mental, and emotional. This developmental psychology needs to be understood by parents.
Child psychology is the study of changes in the development of infants, young children, and adolescents. This science analyzes the growth of children as a whole, namely growth and development from the physical, motor, and cognitive to personality and identity formation.
Despite this, there are some obstacles to the psychological development of children. For example, a person’s development must go through several processes or stages from the environment, such as B. the influence of society.
The psychology of child development from infancy to adulthood is strongly influenced by the experiences made during the aging process, including the behavior and upbringing of their parents.
The range of topics in child psychology is quite wide. There are 5 important aspects in children’s developmental psychology which include developmental stages, achievement, behavior, emotions, and socialization. Here is the explanation:
1st stage of development
An important aspect of early childhood psychology addresses three things in the developmental phase. The three stages include physical, cognitive, or intellectual development and social and emotional development.
This is an explanation of the three important aspects of a child’s developmental stage:
The stage of physical development is the development that is visible through the child’s body. This physical development is usually stable and predictable.
Physical development includes increases in body mass, height, and gross and fine motor skills.
This aspect needs to be well refined by training in early childhood to use some baby toys to support their growth and development. Eating a balanced, wholesome diet also has an effect.
Cognitive development (intelligence)
Cognitive development is related to the process of acquiring knowledge, imagination, memory, language, thought patterns, and reasoning.
Cognitive development or intelligence for early childhood can be promoted through games that train a baby’s creativity. Because the game is not only fun but also develops creative thought patterns and imagination.
This stage cannot be ignored as it is feared that it can slow down the growth of the brain or intelligence. Pay attention to the portion of nutritious food, so that the nutrient intake is correct.
Social and emotional development
Social and emotional development in early childhood is related to the ability to socialize and express emotions.
Social development is the baby’s tendency to play or socialize with the environment including peers, family, or teachers. In general, 1-year-old babies already understand how to socialize and communicate with others, although they still use baby talk. The ability to cooperate in groups is also part of this level.
Emotional development is children’s ability to express their feelings and to understand the feelings of others. These emotional developments include fear, trust, pride, confidence, sadness, anger, humor, or friendship.
2nd performance level
The achievement or milestone is an important aspect of assessing early childhood development. This aspect must be taken into account by parents whether their baby is developing late or not, for example, when they are 18 months old they should be able to walk but when not parents should be aware of this.
The performance level includes physical, cognitive (mental), social and emotional performance as well as communication and language. Here are the explanations for each:
This physical achievement is the development of gross and fine motor skills. This level of performance often needs to be considered and practiced to maximize your little one’s growth and development.
In early childhood, including 1-year-old children, you can teach your little one to walk to strengthen leg muscles and improve walking ability. In addition, light physical activity is also required to improve gross and fine motor skills.
Cognitive Performance (Intelligence)
The cognitive performance or intelligence includes the child’s ability to learn and think and solve a problem.
A child’s cognitive performance can be sharpened by simple stimulation, e.g. B. as inviting your child to play strategy games, e.g. B. searching for treasure or guessing words and pictures to improve his thinking.
In addition, it is also important to increase children’s concentration to optimize their ability to think and learn.
Social and emotional achievements
This social and emotional performance includes the child’s ability to engage in social interactions and express their feelings.
Social performance can be trained by inviting him to join a children’s playgroup to improve social interaction and understanding of feelings, both for himself and for others.
Social and emotional development that is not refined or is slow to refine can result in slow growth and development.
Communication and language services
This communication and language performance relates to the way children communicate or speak to others, as well as expressing words and understanding language.
This important aspect needs to be achieved and refined since the baby has started to communicate in baby talk so that later he does not experience any delays in speech and language.
Language performance in children must be developed so that they do not experience dyslexia or delays in language comprehension, including reading, writing, and spelling of words.
3. Behavior phase
The next important aspect of child development is the behavioral phase. Every child has their character and attitude, for example cheeky, disobedient, and rebellious.
Conflicts between parents and children also often arise at this stage, especially when they are 1-2 years old. At this stage, usually by their teens, they have started to find their identity and do things that they just want to do.
This impulsive behavior is part of the child’s maturing process. However, if the behavior cannot be controlled, it is better if you discuss this directly with a psychologist.
It is important to consult children’s behaviors that go beyond normal limits so that psychologists can educate them about brain development disorders, genetics, nutritional issues, family conditions, and stress. The aim is to solve existing problems.
In the behavior phase, children must be taught the importance of morality. As a result, his behavior does not deviate and he understands how to behave in his environment.
4. Socialization phase
The next important aspect is the phase of socialization, which is also closely related to emotional development. This phase of socialization includes the way children interact with family, peers, neighbors, or teachers at school.
Maintaining the quality of a good relationship between parents and children is very important as it affects the later social development of the children.
At this stage, meanwhile, the child is learning about social interaction with their peers, conflict management, and even negotiation.
At this stage, the baby is experiencing a process of coordinating understanding, action, and goal-setting to do different things. This allows him to develop and maintain pleasant friendships away from his family.
5. Emotion stage
The emotional stage is the child’s ability to understand emotions and feelings for both themselves and others. In this phase, the baby learns to deal with the arising emotions.
The process of emotional development is complex and lasts from childhood to adulthood. The first feelings that arise in childhood are anger, joy, sadness, and fear.
As they age, their emotions also develop. He may already start to feel disappointed, jealous, embarrassed, surprised, proud, happy, and even express empathy. In addition, emotional management is also getting better and better.
Even so, some children who experience temperament find it more difficult to manage emotions. Taking him to a child psychologist can help find the cause and heal it.
This is an explanation of 5 children developmental psychology that parents need to understand. Watch your little one’s growth to make sure he’s in good shape.